References Using Harrell Station Specimens

For more information, visit our Harrell Station page!

Scientific Articles and Books

Applegate, S. P. 1970. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part VIII: The fishes. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 383–433.

Benito, J., Kuo, P.-C., Widrig, K. E., Jagt, J. W. M. & Field, D. J. 2022. Cretaceous ornithurine supports a neognathous crown bird ancestor. Nature, 612, 100–105, doi:10.1038/s41586-022-05445-y.

Cicimurri, D. J. & Ebersole, J. A. 2014. Late Cretaceous chimaeroids (Chondrichthyes: Holocephali) from Alabama, USA. PaleoBios, 31, 1–14.

Deutsch, W. G. 2022. Ancient Life in Alabama: The Fossils, the Finders & Why It Matters. MindBridge Press, Florence, Alabama, 263 pp.

Dobie, J. L. 1978. A fossil amniote egg from an Upper Cretaceous deposit (Mooreville Chalk of the Selma Group) in Alabama. Copeia, 1978, 460–464.

Dumont, M., Tafforeau, P., Bertin, T., Bhullar, B.-A., Field, D., Schulp, A., Strilisky, B., Thivichon-Prince, B., Viriot, L. & Louchart, A. 2016. Synchrotron imaging of dentition provides insights into the biology of Hesperornis and Ichthyornis, the “last” toothed birds. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 16, 178, doi: 10.1186/s12862-016-0753-6.

Ebersole, J. & Ehret, D. 2015. 8th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Association of Vertebrate Paleontology, Field Guide to Harrell Station. Alabama Museum of Natural History, Tuscaloosa, 11 pp.

Ebersole, J. A. & Dean, L. S. 2013. The history of Late Cretaceous vertebrate research in Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 31, 3–45.

Ebersole, J. A. & Ehret, D. J. 2018. A new species of Cretalamna sensu stricto (Lamniformes, Otodontidae) from the Late Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian) of Alabama, USA. PeerJ, 6, e4229, doi: 10.7717/peerj.4229.

Ebersole, S. M. & King, J. L. 2011. A review of non-avian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and Tennessee. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 28, 81–93.

Ehret, D. J. & Harrell, T. L. 2018. Feeding traces on Pteranodon (Reptilia: Pterosauria) bone from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) Mooreville Chalk in Alabama, USA. PALAIOS, 33, 414–418, doi: 10.2110/palo.2018.024.

Field, D. J., Hanson, M., Burnham, D., Wilson, L. E., Super, K., Ehret, D., Ebersole, J. A. & Bhullar, B.-A. S. 2018. Complete Ichthyornis skull illuminates mosaic assembly of the avian head. Nature, 557, 96–100, doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0053-y.

Friedman, M., Shimada, K., Everhart, M. J., Irwin, K. J., Grandstaff, B. S. & Stewart, J. D. 2013. Geographic and stratigraphic distribution of the Late Cretaceous suspension-feeding bony fish Bonnerichthys gladius (Teleostei, Pachycormiformes). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33, 35–47, doi: 10.1080/02724634.2012.713059.

Gentry, A. D. 2017. New material of the Late Cretaceous marine turtle Ctenochelys acris Zangerl, 1953 and a phylogenetic reassessment of the ‘toxochelyid’-grade taxa. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 15, 675–696, doi: 10.1080/14772019.2016.1217087.

Gentry, A. D. 2018. Prionochelys matutina Zangerl, 1953 (Testudines: Pan-Cheloniidae) from the Late Cretaceous of the United States and the evolution of epithecal ossifications in marine turtles. PeerJ, 6, e5876, doi: 10.7717/peerj.5876.

Hacker, R. J., London, M. G. & Shimada, K. 2020. Putative remains of an enigmatic Cretaceous bony fish, Palaeonotopterus greenwoodi (Teleostei: Osteoglossomorpha), from Alabama, U.S.A. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 123, 441–447, doi: 10.1660/062.123.0314.

Harrell, T. L. & Pérez-Huerta, A. 2015a. Habitat preference of mosasaurs indicated by rare earth element (REE) content of fossils from the Upper Cretaceous marine deposits of Alabama, New Jersey, and South Dakota (USA). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences – Geologie en Mijnbouw, 94, 145–154, doi: 10.1017/njg.2014.29.

Harrell, T. L. & Pérez-Huerta, A. 2015b. Rare earth element (REE) analysis of vertebrate fossils from the Upper Cretaceous carbonate marine formations of western and central Alabama, USA: Taphonomic and paleoenvironmental implications. PALAIOS, 30, 514–528, doi: 10.2110/palo.2014.031.

Harrell, T. L., Pérez-Huerta, A. & Suarez, C. A. 2016a. Endothermic mosasaurs? Possible thermoregulation of Late Cretaceous mosasaurs (Reptilia, Squamata) indicated by stable oxygen isotopes in fossil bioapatite in comparison with coeval marine fish and pelagic seabirds. Palaeontology, 59, 351–363, doi: 10.1111/pala.12240.

Harrell, T. L., Pérez-Huerta, A. & Phillips, G. 2016b. Strontium isotope age-dating of fossil shark tooth enameloid from the Upper Cretaceous Strata of Alabama and Mississippi, USA. Cretaceous Research, 62, 1–12, doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2016.01.011.

Hawkins, W. B. 1993. Harrell Station Paleontological Site. NatureSouth, 3, 12–13.

Ikejiri, T., Ebersole, J. A., Blewitt, H. L. & Ebersole, S. M. 2013. An overview of Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 31, 46–71.

Ikejiri, T., Lu, Y. & Zhang, B. 2020. Two-step extinction of Late Cretaceous marine vertebrates in northern Gulf of Mexico prolonged biodiversity loss prior to the Chicxulub impact. Scientific Reports, 10, 4169, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-61089-w.

Kiernan, C. R. 2002. Stratigraphic distribution and habitat segregation of mosasaurs in the Upper Cretaceous of western and central Alabama, with an historical review of Alabama mosasaur discoveries. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 22, 91–103, doi: 10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0091:SDAHSO]2.0.CO;2.

Kopaska-Merkel, D. C., Rindsberg, A. K., Lamb, J. & Ebersole, S. M. 2016. Cretaceous Stratigraphy and Paleontology of West-Central Alabama: A Guidebook. Tuscaloosa and Livingston, 86 pp.

Lacefield, J. 2013. Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: A Guide to the State’s Ancient Life and Landscapes. 2nd edition. Alabama Museum of Natural History, Tuscaloosa, 276 pp.

Langston, W. 1960. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part VI: The dinosaurs. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 313-361 + pl. 34.

Maisey, J. G., Ehret, D. J. & Denton, J. S. S. 2020. A new genus of Late Cretaceous angel shark (Elasmobranchii; Squatinidae), with comments on squatinid phylogeny. American Museum Novitates, 3954, 1–29, doi: 10.1206/3954.1.

Maisey, J. G., Denton, J. S. S., Burrow, C. & Pradel, A. 2020. Architectural and ultrastructural features of tessellated calcified cartilage in modern and extinct chondrichthyan fishes. Journal of Fish Biology, jfb.14376, doi: 10.1111/jfb.14376.

Puckett, T. M. 1994. Planktonic foraminiferal and ostracode biostratigraphy of upper Santonian through lower Maastrichtian strata in central Alabama. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions, 44, 585–595.

Puckett, T. M. 2005. Santonian-Maastrichtian planktonic foraminiferal and ostracode biostratigraphy of the northern Gulf Coastal Plain, USA. Stratigraphy, 2, 117–146.

Russell, D. A. 1970. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part VII: The mosasaurs. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 362–380.

Schein, J. P. & Lewis, R. D. 2007. Actinopterygian fishes from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Alabama, with emphasis on the teleostean genus Enchodus. Paludicola, 6, 41–86.

Schwimmer, D. R., Stewart, J. D. & Williams, G. D. 1994. Giant fossil coelacanths of the Late Cretaceous in the eastern United States. Geology, 22, 503–506, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0503:GFCOTL>2.3.CO;2.

Shimada, K. 2013. Chondrichthyan origin for the fossil record of the tselfatiiform osteichthyan fish, Thryptodus zitteli Loomis, from the Upper Cretaceous Mooreville Chalk of Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History, 31, 72–77.

Shimada, K. & Brereton, D. D. 2007. The Late Cretaceous lamniform shark, Serratolamna serrata (Agassiz), from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama. Paludicola, 6, 105–110.

Smith, C. C. 1993. Mooreville samples from the Harrell Station Site. Office Memorandum – Geological Survey of Alabama and State Oil and Gas Board.

Thurmond, J. T. & Jones, D. E. 1981. Fossil Vertebrates of Alabama. University Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 244 pp.

Walaszczyk, I. & Todes, J. P. 2020. Inoceramus proximus and other inoceramid species of Michael Tuomey from the Cretaceous of Alabama and Mississippi. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, 171, 227–236, doi: 10.1127/zdgg/2020/0227.

Zangerl, R. 1948a. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part I. Introduction. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 2-16 + pls 1-3.

Zangerl, R. 1948b. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part II: The Pleurodon turtles. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 17-56 + pl. 4.

Zangerl, R. 1953a. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part III: The turtles of the family Protostegidae. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 57-133 + pls 5-8.

Zangerl, R. 1953b. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part IV: The turtles of the family Toxochelyidae. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 134-277 + pls 9, 12–29.

Zangerl, R. 1960. The vertebrate fauna of the Selma Formation of Alabama, Part V: An advanced cheloniid sea turtle. Fieldiana, Geology Memoirs, 3, 278-312 + pls 30-33.

Zangerl, R. 1980. Patterns of phylogenetic differentiation in the toxochelyid and cheloniid sea turtles. American Zoologist, 20, 585–596, doi: 10.1093/icb/20.3.585.

Zimmerman, A. N., Johnson, C. C., Phillips, G. E. & Ehret, D. J. 2023. Taxonomy and paleobiogeography of rudist bivalves from Upper Cretaceous strata, Gulf Coastal Plain and Puerto Rico, USA. Journal of Paleontology, 97, 318–340, doi: 10.1017/jpa.2022.104


Connolly, A. M. 2016. Exploring the Relationship between Paleobiogeography, Deep-Diving Behavior, and Size Variation of the Parietal Eye in Mosasaurs. Master Thesis, University of Kansas, 35 pp.

Degirmen, G. 2022. Sequential isotopic analyses of ammonite aptychi. Master Thesis, University of Alabama, 105 pp.

Gentry, A. D. 2015. A redescription of the Cretaceous marine turtle Ctenochelys acris (Zangerl, 1953) and a systematic revision of the ‘toxochelyid’-grade taxa using cladistic analysis. Master Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 84 pp.

Gentry, A. D. 2020. The non-protostegid Cretaceous marine turtles of Alabama and their bearing on the evolution of extant chelonioids. Dissertation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 269 pp.

Harrell, T. L. 2016. Biogeochemical Analysis of Late Cretaceous Vertebrate Fossils of Western Alabama, USA. Dissertation, University of Alabama, 115 pp.

McCormack, L. 2019. Borealosuchus (Crocodylia) from the Early Campanian Mooreville Chalk Reveals New Insights into the Late Cretaceous Fauna of Alabama and the Origin of Crocodylian Lineages. Master Thesis, University of Iowa, 100 pp.

Mohr, S. R. 2018. Cretaceous Bird Fossils of Alberta, Canada. Master Thesis, University of Alberta, 109 pp.

Zimmerman, A. N. 2020. The Importance of Biodiversity in Advancing Evolutionary Paleoecology. Dissertation, Indiana University, 202 pp.

Other References Used for the Harrell Station Page

Liu, K. 2007. Sequence stratigraphy and orbital cyclostratigraphy of the Mooreville Chalk (Santonian–Campanian), northeastern Gulf of Mexico area, USA. Cretaceous Research, 28, 405–418, doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2006.06.005.

Liu, K. 2009. Oxygen and carbon isotope analysis of the Mooreville Chalk and late Santonian-early Campanian sea level and sea surface temperature changes, northeastern Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Cretaceous Research, 30, 980–990, doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2009.02.008.